Vitamins D, E, and resveratrol
Vitamins D, delta-tocotrienol E, and resveratrol have cholesterolreducing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, which doctors tested, separately and together, on metabolic markers in type 2 diabetes. In the first phase of the study, 120 participants took a placebo, or individually 10,000 IU of vitamin D, 500 mg of delta-tocotrienol,
or 500 mg of resveratrol, half after breakfast, and half after dinner. In the second phase, 56 participants took a placebo or all three nutrients together, also twice per day. All nutrients, separately or together, lowered fasting glucose an average of 11 percent. Those taking the nutrient combination saw long-term average glucose levels decline 10 percent; fasting insulin and insulin resistance decline 9 and 20 percent, respectively; and inflammatory factors high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and malondialdehyde down 23 and 20 percent, respectively.
Vitamin K2 reduced neuropathy
There are two reasons people typically get nerve damage in the extremities, called peripheral neuropathy: diabetes and vitamin B12 deficiency, both common in the U.S. In this study, adults with peripheral neuropathy, 36 with type 2 diabetes, and 28 with B12 deficiency, took a placebo or 100 mcg of vitamin K2 twice per day. After eight weeks, the vitamin K2 group self-assessed symptom scores of pain, tingling, burning, prickling, numbness, weakness, and general fatigue declined to 3-4 from 8-9 on a scale of 1-10, regardless of whether participants had diabetes or B12 deficiency. Four weeks after stopping vitamin K2, symptom scores averaged 2.